Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals consisting of only a few atoms. Quantum dots of different sizes can emit light of different colors after absorbing energy. Based on this feature, for the moment, they are mainly employed to manufacture quantum dot backlights and quantum dot light-emitting diodes (AMQLED).
Liquid crystals themselves cannot emit light and need LED or other light sources at the back of the display to light up the crystals. The early version of quantum dot TVs on the market are LCD TVs that use quantum dot backlighting technology. The technology replaces the phosphor layer in traditional LED backlight with a layer of quantum dot film, boosting the color gamut for LED-backlit televisions by more than 30%.
Different from the quantum dot backlight technology, AMQLED does not need backlight. Electricity can make quantum dots emit light. The structure of AMQLED is similar to active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED). The two have different light sources, with AMQLED using inorganic quantum dots instead of organic luminescent materials. Compared to AMOLED, AMQLED is widely considered to be less costly and have a longer life and a wider color gamut. It is also considered to be another disruptive display technology after AMOLED. It is especially competitive in the field of large-size active light-emitting displays.
At present, the quantum dot technology is still in its infancy. According to the analysis of experts in the industry, quantum dot technology will not only bring revolutionary changes to the display industry but also can be widely used in biological sciences, solar cells and other fields, being one of the future-shaping technologies.